Photo by Eunice Choi on Unsplash
It's a cold day in the dead of winter. The sky is gray. Your feelings are gray. One way to make you feel better? A mini garden of bright daffodils and other spring flowers blooming inside your house.
You can make this happiness happen—it’s easy—but you have to start in the fall.
The process of making spring bulbs bloom indoors is called forcing. Forcing bulbs is making the bulbs believe they’ve spent the winter planted outside in the ground, like Mother Nature intended, and that spring has come and heck yeah it’s bloom time.
To force your daffodil bulbs, you’ll need to plant them in pots and then chill them for at least 12 weeks, sometimes longer (although I have had success with shorter chill periods). For January or February flowers, you'll plant September-November. Here in Michigan, I’ve planted bulbs as late as December with great results.
WHAT YOU’LL NEED
All you need is are containers and planting medium. Because the bulbs will be in pots for only a few months, just about any type of container will work. I like to use a shallow garden bowl. I also plant bulbs in cleaned plastic nursery pots to be placed in decorative containers later. Ideally the container has a drainage hole.
Most bulbs can be forced—the hard part is choosing. Narcissus (daffodils) and tulips alone have thousands of varieties in many colors. It’s fun to mix small flowers, like grape hyacinths, with taller daffodils or tulips. Just check the labels to make sure they will bloom about the same time.
One thing to be aware of is squirrels, chipmunks, and mice love to eat tulip and crocus bulbs. If you plant them, be sure to protect your pots or store them in an enclosed cabinet or refrigerator. To be on the safe side, plant daffodils. They’re toxic and critters avoid them.
HOW TO PLANT
Insert bulbs root side down. With some bulbs, it’s hard to tell which end is the root. Most bulbs have a pointy top and a fibrous, rough bottom.
It’s OK to pack bulbs tightly—this makes for a more lavish display. Single bulbs planted in small pots are also elegant.
Do not bury the bulbs completely. Leave them partially exposed. Lightly water and make sure the bulbs are firmly snuggled in the planting medium.
Place the pots in a cool, dark, place where temperatures are consistently 35° to 48° F. This can be an unheated garage, porch or basement, a refrigerator, or a cold frame. If necessary, cover the pots to keep light out.
I store my pots of bulbs in the coldest part of my garage underneath a box or a larger, heavy pot (leaving space for bulbs to sprout). When temperatures fall below freezing, I move the pots deeper into the garage where it’s a little warmer.
Check pots every couple weeks, watering them lightly—just a whisper of water—to avoid rot.
Keep bulbs chilled and in the dark until the sprouts are about 2 inches long. Then, you can bring the pots into your home, where they’ll green up and continue to grow (keep them out of direct sun).
Bulbs beginning to sprout.
5 days later, tips have grown and greened.
15 days later, leaves have grown and buds are forming.
18 days later, the daffodils are beginning to bloom.
29 days later, almost all of the bulbs are blooming, with a few buds still popping up.
Keep pot lightly watered and out of direct sun for best results.
TIP: For a succession of blooms, plant several pots and bring them up one week at a time.
Photo by Annie Spratt on Unsplash
You can even pop your forced bulbs into outdoor pots, where they’ll provide a cheerful welcome.
After bulbs have finished flowering, I replant them outside. Daffodils are more likely to rebloom than tulips. Leave them in the pots, but don’t water. When the foliage begins to wither, plant the bulbs outdoors with leaves still attached. I’ve tossed spent forced daffodils in the compost pile and found them blooming the following spring!
If you’re now inspired to try forcing bulbs, keep in mind that spring bulbs are sold starting in late summer, and they can sell out by late October in some stores. If you can’t plant them right away, store them in a cool, dry place (not the refrigerator).
For a deeper dive, check out this article from the University of Missouri Extension.
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